Asalha puja (Asadha puja) is a puja to Buddha during the full moon in the month of Asalha. Asalha is a name of the month in Buddhis calendar, which is two months after the month of Vesak.
Asalha Puja is done in memory or commemorate the Buddha gave his first teaching (Dhamma) and the day when Three Noble Gems (Tiratana) were formed, which were Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha.
The History of Asalha Noble Occasion
Two months after Siddhartha attained enlightenment and became Buddha, Brahma Sahampati begged Buddha to teach Dhamma (Dharma) to human beings. The Buddha, seeing through His inner eyes, knew that there were five monks who could understand His teachings. The Buddha then came and taught Dhamma to those five monks. This event happened during the full month of Asalha month.
佛陀得道两个月后，娑婆世界主 (大梵天王) 恳求佛陀，请佛陀为众生说法. 佛陀以肉眼看到，有五位苦行僧能够接受和理解他的教导. 于是，佛陀前去为他们说法。此事发生于頞沙荼月满月期间.
The sermon Buddha preached that day is known as The First Turning of the Wheel of Dhamma (Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta). The sermon has a very deep meaning which enlightens humans that this life is full of turnings that bring sufferings. Therefore, there is a way to end the sufferings.
那时，佛陀首次说法，所说之法称之为”转法轮经” (Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta). 此法有着甚深的意义，让大家看到生命因各种变化而导致痛苦，而这些痛苦是可以被熄灭的.
During the sermon, The Buddha explained about The Four Noble Truths (Cattari Ariya Saccani / Catur Arita Satyani):
在说法过程中，佛陀阐述了四圣谛 (Cattari Ariya Saccani/Catur Arita Satyani)，其中包括:
- The Noble Truth of Dukkha
The birth, aging, sickness, death, meeting unpleasant things and people, parting from pleasant things or people, not attaining what is wished, are sufferings (dukkha). In short, the attachment to five parts of life (pancupadanakkhanda) is suffering.
生是苦 (dukkha)，老是苦，病是苦，死是苦，遇到不愉快的事是苦，远离快乐的事是苦，得不到想要的是苦. 简而言之，对五蕴 (pancupadanakkhanda) 的执着是苦.
- The Noble Truth of the Cause of Dukkha
Desire (tanha) causes rebirth, accompanied by inclination. This is the desire of sensory pleasures (kāmatanhā), the desire of continuity (bhavatanhā), and desire of annihilation (vibhavatanhā).
欲望 (tanha) 导致轮回; 这些是肉体享乐的爱欲 (kāmatanhā), 相续欲 (bhavatanhā) 和灭尽欲 (vibhavatanhā).
- The Noble Truth of the End of Dukkha
Suffering (dukkha) will end when desire (tanha) is obliterated. The obliteration of enjoyment will end the suffering.
当欲望 (tanha) 被灭尽时，苦 (dukkha) 就会结束. 那种欲望的消灭将使痛苦停止.
- The Noble Truth of the Path to the End of Dukkha
The path to the end of Dukkha is the Noble Eightfold Path, which consists of Right Understanding, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration.
通往灭苦之道即八正道，谓正见, 正思惟, 正语, 正精進, 正命, 正业, 正念及正定.
After preaching this first sermon, the oldest monk –Kondanna- attained enlightenment, followed by the others. These five monks then begged Buddha to be accepted as His disciples. Buddha consecrated them as the first Bhikkhus. The community of Bhikkhu (Sangha) was formed.
佛陀在第一次说法之后，最年长的苦行僧㤭陈如 (Kondanna) 修成正果，随后其他人也相继成圣. 这五位苦行僧请佛陀收其为弟子，佛陀为他们举行出家仪式，正式收为首位弟子. 首支僧团 (僧伽) 就此成立.
Thus, the Triple Gems (Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha) is complete, which is the protector of every Buddha disciples. This event occurred during the full month in Asalha month, year 588 BC, at Isipatana Deer Park, Benares city (currently known as Sarnath, India). This event is commemorated by Buddha disciples all over the world as Asalha Puja, or Puja at the sacred day of Asalha.
因此，三宝（佛, 法, 僧）成为每个佛教徒的保护者 (Tisarana, 三皈依). 这一事件发生在公元前 588 年頞沙荼月满月期间，于贝拿勒斯 (今印度鹿野苑). 此日被世界各地的佛教徒纪念为法宝日.
Asalha is from Pali language and Asadha is from Sankrit. Pali language is the language used during the life of Buddha.
Asalha来自巴利语, Asadha 来自梵语. 巴利语是佛陀在世时使用的语言.
The Puja which is done together with Indonesia Tipitaka Chanting is called Asalha Mahapuja (the Grand Asalha Puja) because the puja is done by thousands Buddha disciples at Candi Borobudur yard, starting with Gotama Buddha Grand Relic Procession from Candi Mendut to Candi Borobudur.
此与三藏经诵一起举行的法会称之为 Asalha Mahapuja (法宝大法会), 因为这个法会有成千上万的佛教徒参加，并且在婆罗浮屠寺的院里举行. 法会先是由从曼都寺至婆罗浮屠寺的佛舍利游行开始.